MPLS and Carrier Networks

Welcome to Teracom’s MPLS Training Course "MPLS and Carrier Networks". This free lesson is the introduction to the course.

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
  • Explain the components and basic structure of a carrier packet network including core, provider edge, access and customer edge,
  • List three ways carrier packet services are better than dedicated lines or ISDN for wide-area networking,
  • Define a Service Level Agreement, Class of Service and traffic profile,
  • Define a traffic class and explain what a virtual circuit is, and what virtual circuits are used for,
  • Differentiate between a reliable and unreliable Class of Service and what must be done to accommodate the latter, and briefly explain connection-oriented and connectionless communication modes,
  • Explain the fundamentals of Frame Relay: how Frame Relay got its name, how IP is carried over Frame Relay, why TCP is also required, and the traffic profiles supported by Frame Relay,
  • Identify the steps involved in communicating voice in packets, and what transmission characteristics are critical to call quality,
  • Briefly describe the characteristics of ATM and the classes of service it was supposed to implement to support telephone calls,
  • Show how MPLS is essentially the same thing as X.25, Frame Relay and ATM but with different jargon – and identify that jargon
  • Define the meaning and purpose of a label, and identify where the label is placed in which header,
  • Trace the flow of a message transported by TCP in IP packets over an MPLS network,
  • Identify the benefit of MPLS compared to Frame Relay from the user’s point of view,
  • Explain what Differentiated Services are, and how MPLS labels can be used to implement Diff-Serv, and an alternative,
  • Explain how and why MPLS can be used to achieve service integration,
  • Show how MPLS can be used to aggregate traffic,
  • Explain what exactly someone means when they say “MPLS service” and explain why “IP service with a service level agreement” would be a more accurate term, and
  • Identify two differences between MPLS service and Internet service, and the pros and cons of each.

This MPLS training course is part of the CTNS Certification Package, a set of six courses plus Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist (CTNS) certification from the Telecommunications Certification Organization (TCO). It is also included in the four-course "IP" package, the Certified IP Telecom Network Specialist (CIPTS) Certification Package. CTNS is the more complete training, six courses beginning with POTS and the PSTN, plus wireless then the four CIPTS "IP" courses.

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Lesson Notes

Technical Background and Introduction
A router is a device than relays packets from one circuit to another on a first-come, first-served, packet-by-packet basis.  Knowing which circuit to relay the packet to is the routing part of the story, also called packet switching and packet forwarding.

Routers implement bandwidth on demand by not reserving a fraction of the capacity of the connecting circuit for each device (channelizing), but instead giving each device the possibility of using the full capacity of the connecting circuit – when there is something to transmit.

Since devices generate traffic in bursts, and normally have nothing to transmit, many more devices can be connected to the circuit using bandwidth on demand instead of channelizing.

This is called overbooking or oversubscribing. It is done on purpose, to give the users the highest performance for the lowest cost.

In this course, we will take the same idea and apply it again at the carrier network level: replacing the dedicated lines between customer locations from the simple framework of the previous course with bandwidth on demand service from a carrier between the customer locations.

This brings the same benefit to the customer as it did to individual devices in the previous course: the highest performance for the lowest cost.

All of the carrier’s customers in a city are given access to the same high-speed intercity circuits, with the possibility of transmitting to other cities at full line speed – but only when they have something to transmit.

This is called a packet network service provided by a carrier.

This type of service is used by businesses (including government, organizations and other carriers) to implement cost-effective, flexible, high-speed packet communications between specific locations.

It is, of course, the same story for the packet networks built by carriers and connected to form the Internet. 

traffic classes

Different Traffic Classes

Overbooking connections between routers implements bandwidth on demand for the users. In a commercial environment, for banks, government, other carriers, the next questions would be "how MUCH bandwidth on demand" and "how often do we get that"?
This course focuses on the technologies for managing traffic and guaranteeing performance for commercial users on an overbooked network.
After covering the basic architecture, we'll discuss the "guarantee", called a Service Level Agreement, and then the critical ideas of virtual circuits and traffic classes, implemented in the past with ATM and Frame Relay, and most importantly, how MPLS today uses these ideas to implement different service levels, aggregation, integration and convergence.
We'll complete the discussion by understanding what sales people mean when they say "MPLS Service" and compare that to Internet service.
List of Lessons

Lesson 1. Course Introduction (this one).

Lesson 2. Carrier Packet Network Basics 
The fundamental concepts of packet switching and bandwidth-on-demand or overbooking, the physical components involved in using a carrier packet network service including Customer Edge, types of access circuits, the Provider Edge and the network core – and why PE equipment is sometimes deployed at the customer premise.  This lesson is completed with a roundup of the benefits of packet services over dedicated lines and circuit-switched connections.
Lesson 3. Service Level Agreements: Traffic Profile and Class of Service
How performance is specified, measured, guaranteed and controlled on an overbooked bandwidth-on-demand network –  the Service Level Agreement where the network guarantees specified transmission characteristics, sometimes called a Class of Service, on condition that the customer stays within a defined traffic profile … and what happens to out-of-profile traffic.
Lesson 4. Virtual Circuits
The fundamentals of virtual circuits, an essential part of all packet communication networks. We’ll cover the concepts of traffic classes, virtual circuits, virtual circuit IDs and the fundamental principles of operation that are common to all technologies, including MPLS, and how virtual circuits are a powerful traffic management tool.
Lesson 5. X.25: Data Packet Service from The Phone Company
Beginning with this lesson, we’ll run through the main virtual circuit technologies, starting with X.25.  We won’t spend any time on details of X.25, as it was replaced with Frame Relay then MPLS, but instead use it to introduce a graphical method of showing how packets travel between routers in frames over physical connections from user to network to user, plus concepts and jargon including connection-oriented vs. connectionless network service and reliable Class of Service vs. unreliable and pave the way for understanding current technologies Frame Relay and MPLS, and the improvements each brought to the table.
Lesson 6. Frame Relay
How Frame Relay was an improvement, why it’s called “Frame Relay” along with other jargon, and why IP and TCP are required in conjunction with Frame Relay service. We’ll identify the equipment used for Frame Relay and the traffic profiles it supports.
Lesson 7. TCP/IP over Frame Relay
In this lesson, we’ll trace the flow of information from a server to a client across a Frame Relay service, identifying the protocol stacks on the terminals and edge equipment.  This will allow understanding how Frame Relay network service from a carrier relates to TCP and IP used by a customer, and the requirements for connecting to a carrier’s Frame Relay service.
Lesson 8. QoS Requirement for Voice Over IP
Packet network services were originally designed for data communication.  In this lesson, we’ll understand how live voice is packetized, carried over a packet network, then reconstructed at the far end – and the transmission characteristics necessary for voice quality.
Lesson 9. ATM
ATM was supposed to be The Solution, allowing integration and convergence of all services on a packet network, as it was designed to guarantee the transmission characteristics necessary for voice and video in packets – but it became horribly complicated and expensive and is on the way out, so will simply provide an overview of ATM and its jargon.
Lesson 10. MPLS
IP has emerged as the standard for packets that will be used to carry all traffic.  However, since IP provides a  connectionless network service, additional protocols are required to implement virtual circuits on IP networks to enable management and prioritization of traffic.  The choice for virtual circuits over IP is Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS).  The concepts are the same as other virtual circuit technologies X.25, Frame Relay and ATM… but the jargon is changed.  We’ll begin by identifying MPLS components, jargon and basic principles of operation.
Lesson 11. TCP/IP over MPLS
In this lesson, we’ll revisit tracing the path of a file download from server to client, this time over an MPLS network.  This will reveal a significant advantage of MPLS-based network services compared to Frame Relay in the user-network interface.  We’ll also discuss the “M” in MPLS, noting how MPLS can be used to carry frames for VPLS in addition to the usual IP packets.
Lesson 12. Differentiated Classes of Service using MPLS
Here, we’ll examine how classifying traffic and mapping classes onto virtual circuits can be a Quality of Service (QoS) mechanism to implement multiple Classes of Service on a packet network. This is sometimes referred to as differentiated services or Diff-Serv, i.e. providing a different Class of Service for each application: VoIP, IPTV, email, web surfing and others. 
Lesson 13. Integration and Convergence using MPLS
In this lesson, we’ll see how virtual circuits and traffic classification can be used to combine all of the types of communications of a business or organization onto a single access circuit.  This idea is sometimes called convergence, though service integration is a more accurate term. It results in a large cost savings compared to one access circuit for each type of communications. 
Lesson 14. Managing Aggregates of Traffic with Label Stacking
Here, we’ll understand how MPLS labels can be stacked. In other words, virtual circuits carried over other virtual circuits, and how this is implemented to aggregate traffic for both routing and prioritization reasons – both on access circuits and in the network core.

Lesson 15. MPLS Services vs. Internet Service
This lesson completes the course on carrier packet network services with a discussion of terminology used in sales and marketing of MPLS services, and how that translates to reality. We will use a quiz question-and-answer format to understand the difference between Internet service and what sales brochures often call “MPLS service”… and what exactly an “MPLS service” is.

Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist (CTNS) Certification Package
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Six online courses covering the core knowledge
you need in the telecommunications business today:
  checkmark POTS and The PSTN
  checkmark Wireless Telecommunications
  checkmark The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks
  checkmark Ethernet, LANs and VLANs
  checkmark IP Networks, Routers and Addresses
  checkmark MPLS and Carrier Networks
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Based on Teracom's proven training used by hundreds of telecom companies and major organizations, you will benefit from decades of knowledge, insight and experience distilled into clear lessons, logically organized to build one concept on another.
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or to prepare for a job in the telecommunications business.
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Package Overview
Like Teracom's famous instructor-led training seminar Course 101 "Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers", our very popular DVD-Video course library and the Telecom 101 textbook, the CTNS Certification Package begins with the Public Switched Telephone Network then Wireless Telecommunications and followed by four courses on IP telecommunications.
Course L2101 POTS and the PSTN
Loops and Trunks • Circuit-Switching • LECs and IXCs • Analog • Voiceband • DTMF • SS7
8 interactive multipart lessons, multiple-choice exam and certificate. Produced 2012.
POTS and the PSTN - course introductionduction Lesson
We begin with a history lesson, understanding how and why telephone networks and the companies that provide them are organized into local access and inter-city transmission, or as we will see, Local Exchange Carriers (LECs) and Inter-Exchange Carriers (IXCs).
Then we will establish a basic model for the PSTN and understand its main components: Customer Premise, Central Office, loop, trunk, outside plant, circuit switching, attenuation, loop length, remotes, and why knowledge of the characteristics of the loop remains essential knowledge even though we are moving to Voice over IP.
Next, we'll cover aspects of telephony and Plain Ordinary Telephone Service, including analog, the voiceband, twisted pair, supervision and signaling including DTMF. The course is completed with an overview of SS7, the control system for the telephone network in the US and Canada.
On completion of this course, you will be able to draw a model of the PSTN, identify all of its components and technologies from voiceband analog to fiber to the neighborhood, and explain the characteristics and operation of POTS.
The next course in the CTNS package is Course L2106 Wireless Telecommunications:
Mobility • Cellular Networks • GSM and TDMA • UMTS and 1X CDMA • LTE • WiFi • Satellite
10 interactive multipart lessons, multiple-choice exam and certificate. Produced 2012.
Course L2106: Wireless Telecommunications - Introduction
In many parts of the world, particularly outside the US, Canada and Western Europe, the physical telephone network is wireless, since deploying radio transceivers is far cheaper than embarking on a new project to pull copper wires and/or fiber to every residence.
Most of this course is devoted to mobile wireless telecommunications. We begin with basic concepts and terminology including base stations and transceivers, mobile switches and backhaul, handoffs, cellular radio concepts and digital radio concepts.
Then, we cover spectrum-sharing technologies and their variations in chronological order: GSM/TDMA vs. CDMA for second generation, 1X vs. UMTS CDMA for third generation along with their data-optimized 1XEV-DO and HSPA, how Steve Jobs ended the standards wars with the iPhone and explaining the OFDM spectrum-sharing method of LTE for 4G.
This course is completed with a lesson on WiFi, or more precisely, 802.11 wireless LANs, and a lesson on satellite communications.
On completion, you will be able to draw a model of a cellular wireless telecommunications network, identify all of its components and technologies from handset to mobile switch, and explain the characteristics and operation of FDMA, TDMA, CDMA and OFDMA, and how each was deployed for AMPS, GSM, UMTS and LTE. You will also be able to explain WiFi, the frequencies used and the different 802.11 standards, and the similarities and differences between LEO and GEO satellites.
The remaining four courses in the CTNS package are on the "IP" telecommunications network and its three main enabling technologies: Ethernet, IP and MPLS, and beginning with the OSI model and its layers to establish a framework.
Course L2112 The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks
Protocols & Standards • Open Systems • OSI Model • Layers • Protocol Stacks • FedEx Analogy
14 interactive multipart lessons, multiple-choice exam and certificate. Produced 2012.
Course L2112 The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks
The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks establishes a framework for all of the subsequent discussions: the OSI 7-Layer Reference Model, which identifies and divides the functions to be performed into groups called layers. This framework is required to sort out the many functions that need to be performed, and to be able to discuss separate issues separately.
First, we'll define the term "protocol" and compare that to a standard. Then we'll define "layer" and how a layered architecture operates, and provide an overview of the name, purpose and function of each of the seven layers in the OSI model.
Then, we'll go back through the story more slowly, with one lesson for each of the layers, examining in greater detail the functions that have to be performed and giving examples of protocols and how and where they are used to implement particular layers.
The result is a protocol stack, one protocol on top of another on top of another to fulfill all of the required functions. To make this more understandable, this course ends with the famous FedEx Analogy illustrating the concepts using company-to-company communications, and an analogy of Babushka dolls to illustrate how the protocol headers are nested at the bits level.
On completion of this course, you will be able to define a protocol and differentiate that from a standard, explain why a layered architecture is required, list the seven layers of the OSI model, the name, purpose and functions of each one, and explain how a protocol stack operates and where the protocol headers are located.
Next is Course L2111 Ethernet, LANs and VLANs – which could also be titled "Layer 2":
MAC Addresses • 802.3 and Ethernet • Broadcast Domains • LAN Cables • Switches • VLANs
8 interactive multipart lessons, multiple-choice exam and certificate. Produced 2012.
Course L2111 Ethernet, LANs and VLANs
As we will have established in the previous course, Layer 2 is all about communications between two devices that are on the same circuit, or more precisely, in the same broadcast domain. It turns out that this is implemented by moving frames with link addresses over physical connections following the 802 series of standards, colloquially referred to as Ethernet, MAC frames and MAC addresses.
We'll begin with the original LAN: Ethernet and its bus topology, defining "broadcast domain" and explaining its fundamental operation and characteristics: CSMA-CD access control, MAC addresses and MAC frames.
Then we'll cover the IEEE 802 standards and the evolution of Ethernet from 10BASE-T to Gig-E, LAN cables and the TIA-568 cable categories, basic cabling design; what "bridging" means and how a LAN switch works.
This course is completed with the important concept of VLANs: defining broadcast domains in software, a key part of basic network security practice.
On completion, you will be able to define a broadcast domain, explain Ethernet and the 802 standards, MAC addresses, LANs and VLANs, the jargon and buzzwords, the underlying ideas, and how it all works together to move data between two devices in the same broadcast domain.
Then Course L2113 IP Networks, Routers and Addresses – which could also be titled "Layer 3":
IP Packets • Networks • Routers • Static, Dynamic, Public, Private Addresses • NAT • IPv6
11 interactive multipart lessons, multiple-choice exam and certificate. Produced 2012.
Course L2113 IP Networks, Routers and Addresses
This is a comprehensive course on Layer 3 of the OSI Model, concentrating on IP addresses, routers and packets. We begin with the two basic principles of packet networks: bandwidth on demand, also known as overbooking or statistical multiplexing; and packet-switching, also known as packet forwarding or routing.
We'll understand what routers do and where they are located, routing tables and the basic operation of a router and the standard strategy deploying an edge router between the LANs and the WAN at each location.
Then we'll cover IP version 4: address classes and how they are assigned to Regional Internet Registries then ISPs then end-users, dotted-decimal notation, static addresses, dynamic addresses and DHCP, public addresses, private addresses and NAT.
The course concludes with IPv6: the IPv6 packet and changes from IPv4, IPv6 address allocations and assignments and end up understanding how IPv6 subnets will be assigned to broadcast domains and 18 billion billion addresses per residence.
On completion of this course, you will be able to define bandwidth on demand and its advantages, what a router does, the basic structure of a routing table, where routers are located, define the IPv4 address structure and dotted-decimal notation, explain how both static and dynamic addresses are assigned using DHCP, what private addresses are and how they are interfaced to the public IP network, and the structure, allocation and assignment of IPv6 addresses.
The last course in this certification package is Course L2114 MPLS and Carrier Networks
Carrier Packet Networks • Technologies • MPLS • SLAs • CoS • Integration & Aggregation
15 interactive multipart lessons, multiple-choice exam and certificate. Produced 2012.
Course L2114 MPLS and Carrier Networks
This is an extensive and comprehensive course devoted to the structure, components and operation of carrier packet networks and services, how they are implemented, packaged and marketed, and how they are used by government, business and other carriers.
The IP packets and routing of the previous course is one part of the story. Performance guarantees, and methods for quality of service, traffic management, aggregation and integration is another big part of the story, particularly once we leave the lab and venture into the real world and the business of telecommunications services.
We'll begin by establishing a basic model for a customer obtaining service from a provider, defining Customer Edge, Provider Edge, access and core, and a Service Level Agreement: traffic profile vs. transmission characteristics.
Next, we'll understand virtual circuits, a powerful tool used for traffic management and variations like connection-oriented vs. connectionless communications and reliable vs. unreliable network services.
With the fundamentals in place, we will survey the different technologies used to implement this in practice: Frame Relay, ATM and MPLS, explaining the equipment, jargon and principles of operation, and the advantages each technology has over the previous. In particular, we'll understand the big advantage of MPLS over Frame Relay in the user-network interface.
Once we've covered all of the components of an MPLS network and its operation, we'll see how MPLS is used to implement Diff-Serv, i.e. different classes of service, how MPLS is used to implement integration or "convergence" of services onto a single network service, and how MPLS is used to aggregate traffic for management.
The course is completed with a lesson on "MPLS service", and how that compares to Internet service.
On completion of this course, you will be able to draw a model for a service provider's network, define the terms Customer Edge and Provider Edge, explain what a traffic profile is and how that relates to a Service Level Agreement, how Frame Relay got its name, what ATM is and why it is on the way out, the purpose, components, terminology and operation of MPLS, and how MPLS can be used to implement integration or convergence, aggregation and differentiated classes of service – what people mean when they say "MPLS service" and its pros and cons compared to Internet service.
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About TCO Certification
Teracom is a Gold Training Partner of the Telecommunications Certification Organization, authorized to administer exams for TCO certifications on the myTeracom Learning Management System and award TCO Certifications.
TCO Certification is proof of your knowledge of telecom, datacom and networking fundamentals, jargon, buzzwords, technologies and solutions.
It's backed up with a Certificate suitable for framing - plus a personalized Letter of Reference / Letter of Introduction detailing the knowledge your TCO Certification represents and inviting the recipient to contact Teracom for verification.
You may list Teracom Training Institute as a reference on your resumé if desired.
Getting your Certificate

Each course has a course exam, consisting of ten multiple-choice questions chosen at random from a pool and shuffled in order. Passing the course exams proves your knowledge of these topics and results in your certification as a Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist.

Your Certificate and Letter of Reference / Letter of Introduction will be immediately available for download from your Dashboard in the myTeracom Learning Management System. You may also order a signed and sealed Certificate by airmail.
Choosing the "Unlimited Plan" at registration allows you to repeat courses and/or exams at no additional charge – which means guaranteed to pass if you're willing to learn.
Alternatively, if you like this discounted package of courses, but don't need the certification – or don't feel like writing exams – no problem! Take the package and simply skip the exams.
Benefits of Certification for Individuals

One benefit of TCO certification is differentiating yourself from the rest of the crowd when applying for a job or angling for a promotion.

The knowledge you gain taking Teracom's Online Courses, confirmed with TCO Certification, is foundational knowledge in telecommunications, IP, networking and wireless: fundamental concepts, mainstream technologies, jargon, buzzwords, and the underlying ideas - and how it all fits together.
This type of knowledge and preparation makes you an ideal candidate to hire or promote to a task, as you will be able to build on your knowledge base to quickly get up to speed and work on a particular project - then have the versatility to work on subsequent projects.
TCO Certification will help demonstrate you have this skill... a desirable thought to have in your potential manager's mind.
Benefits of Certification for Employers
Take advantage of these courses for individual learning, a team, or for an entire organization. The scalable myTeracom Learning Management System can register and manage all of your people through their courses, lessons and exams, and generate management reports showing progress and scores with the click of a button.
For larger organizations, the courses and exams can also be licensed and deployed on an organization's internal LMS.

Teracom certification packages are an extremely cost-effective way of implementing consistent, comprehensive telecommunications and networking technology fundamentals training, ensuring that both existing resources and new hires are up to the same speed, with a common vocabulary, framework and knowledge base.

The course exams provide concrete measurements of competency in key knowledge areas. Management can view the progress and results of all team members and export the results to Excel with the click of a button.
These reports identify skills deficiencies and strengths, and provide tangible proof of return on investment and team readiness for reports to upper management.
Based on Teracom's proven instructor-led training courses developed and refined over twenty years providing training for organizations including AT&T, Verizon, Bell Canada, Intel, Microsoft, Cisco, Qualcomm, the CIA, NSA, IRS, FAA, US Army, Navy, Marines and Air Force and hundreds of others, Teracom online courses are top-notch, top-quality and right up to date with the topics and knowledge you need.

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